Quality Online Guides

Survive Medically When Help Is Not On The Way

Author: Harvey Toogood

Survive Medically When Help Is Not On The Way

Book Series: Survival


No matter what type of emergency situation is at hand, there is a level of clear-headedness that has to take over or you are simply not going to be able to make your way through it. Whether you are stuck on a long and deserted road, out in the woods, in a remote cabin or even in a natural disaster situation, there could be the harsh reality that help may not be on the way in the near future.

Whenever you find that you need to try to struggle to make it through, there will be many things that will race through your mind. However, if you are going to survive until help can get to you, it is going to be important that you remember the value of living and keep some steps in mind that will help get you to the other side.

It goes without saying that each one of us was born with a natural instinct to survive. Yet we have also grown accustomed to a way of living that has made us feel as though we can and should rely on certain comforts. As creatures of comfort, we have grown to hate dealing with certain discomforts and inconveniences that may arise from time to time. What do you do if you suddenly find yourself stuck in a survival situation that is filled with discomforts, inconveniences and stresses? You have to have the will to live, and an ability to place a very high value on your life and on surviving.

This is the time when you need to make sure that anything that you have learned throughout your lifetime can come in handy, so that you can assist your will to live with some simple tips and tricks. You have to be stubborn; you have to want to get through any of the obstacles that are in your way. This strong will to survive will be a combination of both physical and mental strength, to a degree that not many of us will realize that we even have within us, until we are in an emergency situation.

What you will find in this eBook will cover a wide range of scenarios, as well as fixes that you can keep in your memory bank, should you find yourself needing to survive medically, when help is not on the way.


Not everyone is going to have exactly what it takes to survive through extreme conditions or emergencies. However, learning as much as you can prior to the situation arising can give you a much better chance.

Sizing It Up

No matter what is going on, you will have to take a few moments to gather your thoughts so that you can immediately look at everything that is going on around you. You need to make sure that you and anyone who is with you are not in any sort of immediate danger. Try to use as many of your senses as you can, including sight, smell and hearing, to help you get a feel for what is happening all around you. Taking into consideration anything that happened or is still happening around you, will allow you to make a plan for survival.

Look around at the area that you are in, see what type of environment it is. Whether you are in the woods, on a busy street or on a boat in the water, you will have to see what might be around you that can be helpful. Some people who have been in an emergency situation will tell you that it helped them to look around for patterns or rhythms of some of the things around them, including movements, traffic, birds chirping or even the sound of a nearby waterfall.

What is your physical condition? Anyone who has just gone through a traumatic situation may be led to overlook any wounds that were encountered. Try to check yourself over as soon as you can, and see if you can give yourself some sort of first aid for any wounds that you have. At the same time, you will want to be sure that you take care of yourself by preparing yourself for a long wait until help arrives, which could include staying hydrated in any climate, staying warm in a cold climate and more.

Do you have any sort of equipment with you that you are able to use? Even if the items that you have around you seem as though they may not be of any help or they are broken, keep them close, just in case you are able to use them for any reason. Even a broken flashlight could come in handy at some point, so it is best that you never discard anything unless you absolutely have to. Sometimes, even some pieces of cloth ripped from a scarf, blanket or jacket can be used to help tie up a dressing on a wound, or to help hold up a tarp for cover from the elements and more.

Using Your Senses

Reacting too quickly without a good plan or initial thinking could lead you to making a wrong move, which could result in dire circumstances. No matter where you are, or what your condition might be, you need to be sure that you consider everything around you and everything that has happened, so that you do not make a quick decision and move too fast. If you act in haste, you could end up forgetting something, losing your equipment or even becoming a bit disoriented. This is why it is always best to try and plan out your moves, even if you take a couple of minutes of your time to do so.

Think before moving; yet be ready to move out as quickly as possible without endangering yourself any further. Your senses will be a valuable tool to help you decide what is going on around you. Take notice of any sights, sounds and smells, and even be cognizant of temperature changes that you may be experiencing. Above all, you must be observant.

Where Are You?

There are a lot of things that can be done, as long as you remember where you are, what you might be in close proximity to and how you can get back to a location if you need to. If you are going to move to look for help or supplies, it is going to be good for you to be able to map out a way of getting back to the area you were in, especially if it was safe. Always pay attention to where you are currently and where you are going. Rely on your senses instead of other people that might be with you, and keep track of your own route.

Do Not Panic

One of your greatest enemies, when it comes to your overall chances at surviving a tragedy, will be panic. You must try at all costs to make it so that you do not let your fear and panic take over, because if you do, you could end up completely destroying your decision-making abilities. Someone who ends up fueling their actions with fear will more than likely react in a manner that could be dangerous and/or detrimental. These thoughts and feelings can end up draining your valuable energy supply and even foster negative emotions, so you will have to take on a new level of self-confidence so that you can push onward.

Make Do

One thing that all military personnel are taught when they are in boot camp is the ability to improvise, no matter what the situation might be. Growing up in the United States, the majority of us will have everything that we need, or the ability to go out and get whatever it is that is necessary for survival. Sometimes, this can make it very difficult for us to learn how to jump into action and improvise whenever the time arises. However, if you have the ability to think fast and grab one item or tool that is normally made for a specific purpose, and you are able to use it for the task at hand, then you have what it takes to improvise.

Whenever you are in an emergency situation, you will have to be able to use a variety of objects that are around you, to suit your needs. Maybe this will be using a large cap off of something to gather water, or grabbing a rock and using it as a hammer. Even if you have an emergency kit or survival package within reach, there will sometimes be a situation where you will have to use your imagination to take over once supplies are gone, or if there are not enough items in there for you to use.


There is a whole lot more that goes into survival than knowing how to make a fire, bandage a wound, build a shelter or even find your way when you are lost. There are a lot of people who will have little or no training at all when it comes to survival, and yet they have been able to make it through dangerous and life threatening scenarios. On the other hand, there will be some circumstances when you will come across others who have had lots of survival training. Unfortunately, they simply neglect to use their skills and the worst happens. Above all, you are going to see that the most important thing in any sort of survival situation will be the overall mental attitude that you have.

You have to want to survive, first and foremost. While having a good skill set will be very beneficial to you, if you are not willing and ready to use those skills, then you are going to falter. The last thing you will want to do is to have all of the skills you have taken the time to learn, go to waste.. Seeing as how you never know when an emergency situation is going to take place, it will also be very important that you keep giving yourself refreshers of these skills, so that you will be able to kick into your survival mode and persevere.

This is why there is a psychology when it comes to survival. There can be a lot of trauma all around you that will make you go through a wide range of emotions, and the stress can be tremendous. However, if you have the right mindset for survival, you are going to see that it will be easier for you to be able to push through. Each of us has our own natural reactions to stress. It will be the way in which you process what is going on, which will allow you to have the will that you need to survive, and even help anyone who might be around you in the same emergency situation.


Not everyone has to go through extreme levels of training in order to possess the first aid skills that are necessary to save a life, whenever there is an emergency situation. However, there are some basic, yet vital body functions that must be known, in order to provide emergency care that is going to be beneficial for anyone and everyone in your immediate area. Once you have the knowledge necessary to understand vital body functions, you will have a better chance of assessing the medical emergency and assisting.

Breathing - Every human being has to have oxygen in order to keep on living. During the process of breathing, the lungs will take in oxygen from the air, and then put it into the blood. The heart works to pump blood through the body so that it can be used by each of the cells that have to have a consistent oxygen supply. There are some cells that need oxygen more than others, an example being that the brain could die if it goes without oxygen, for anywhere between four and six minutes.

After the cells end up dying, they will be lost, as they do not have the ability to regenerate. When this happens, there is a good chance that it can lead to some sort of paralysis, permanent brain damage and even death.

Respiration - This takes place as a person inhales and then exhales. On the breath in, the body takes in oxygen and then on the breath out, the body will release carbon dioxide.

Airways - The passageways for air that the body uses consist of the mouth, nose, throat, windpipe and voice box. This is the canal that air uses to pass in and out of the lungs.

Lungs - These are two organs, elastic in nature, that are made up of a network of tiny air pockets, which are then covered by a membrane that is airtight. Part of the lungs includes the bronchial tree.

Rib Cage - This is a portion of the chest of the body that is made from ribs connected with muscles, which will join at the spine in the back portion, and at the front where the breastbone is. This is the housing for many vital organs of the body, including the lungs, bronchial tree, diaphragm and heart.

Circulation - This is a process that takes place, as the blood vessels and the heart work together to circulate all of the blood throughout the body and the tissues of the body. The heart works as a pump, helping the blood to move around, bringing valuable nutrients along with oxygen, so that they can pass through the capillaries and into the cells. The system of the blood vessels, heart and all of the lymphatic vessels are known as the circulatory system.

Heart - The human heart works hard to pump blood throughout the body. As it contracts it will push blood out of its chambers, then as it relaxes it will allow the chambers to fill back up with blood. A normal heart will beat between 60 to 80 beats each minute.

Pulse - This is a cycle of both expansion and contraction that is felt or monitored at certain points on the body. The pulse can successfully be checked on several arteries: the carotid on the side of the neck, the femoral on the groin, the radial on the wrist and then the posterior tibia on the ankle.

* If there is a lack of oxygen, the human body will have a difficult time surviving and often cease to be. First aid will call for proper measures, to make sure that the airways of the body are open, so that breathing can be restored.

* You need to have the right amount of blood circulating throughout the body, or it can lead to death. It is very important to dress a wound properly to make sure that bleeding will stop, so that dangerous or deadly blood loss will not take place.

* Whenever a person has a lack of blood flow to all of the organs and vital tissues, they could end up going into shock. This can happen from deep burns, extreme pain, a visual reaction to blood or a wound, the loss of blood, loss of fluids and more.

* If there is some sort of a severe injury or wound, the manner in which it is cleaned prior to dressing or kept clean, can lead to infection if not monitored carefully. Infections will take place whenever there is the growth or spreading of germs or bacteria on the body. These organisms can come from everything including the skin, clothing, soil, water and even the air around you. Wounds will need to be kept clean, and you need to keep them properly dressed so that further contamination will not occur.


Being forced into an emergency situation and not knowing how long it will be before help will arrive calls for the basics of first aid. There are many people that will take first aid classes, just so that they will be able to help themselves or other people, should the need arise. The more that you know ahead of time, the better the chance you will have of saving someone's life or even preserving your own long enough to survive until you are able to get helpful medical attention.

1. Check for proper breathing. Make sure that there is not a lack of good oxygen intake, paying close attention to see if the airways are compromised in any way. These first few minutes can be crucial, as anyone can suffer brain damage or death after only a short period of time.

2. Is there bleeding? Look over the body to see if there are any open wounds that are bleeding, and pay attention to whether or not you will be able to stop the bleeding with the application of pressure. This is important, as excessive blood loss can lead to shock or even death.

3. Check to make sure that the person is not in shock. To try to prevent shock, you will have to perform first aid and cater to the needs of the individual until medical treatment can be provided. Some of the symptoms of shock include nervousness/restlessness, thirst, loss of blood, clammy skin that is cool yet sweaty and a pale color to the skin. There may also be confusion, a rapid breathing rate, vomiting and/or nausea and blotches on the skin.

* See if the individual is able to respond. Try to gently shake or tap the person who is down or injured, to ask if they are okay. If the person is unable to respond, you will want to move on with the right measures. If they say that they are okay, you will still want to follow through with a thorough evaluation.

* Someone who is conscious should be asked if they have any pain and where on the body it hurts. If possible, ask them to describe the pain to you or to even let you know if there is an area in which they have no feeling at all.

* A conscious person still might not be able to talk, due to choking or another reason. You will have to stop the rest of your evaluation, and then move on to help them with first aid measures. This is where you will have to work to try to open the airways if they are closed off in any way. If there is any chance that the person has a broken neck or back, you should not move them, as it could lead to some sort of permanent paralysis or even death.

* Does the person have a pulse? If there is one, you can proceed with the rest of the evaluation. If there is a pulse, yet they are not breathing, you will have to start rescue breathing methods, also known as CPR.

* For potential bleeding, you will want to see if there are any spurts of blood or clothing that is soaked with blood. At the time that you are looking for blood, you will want to try to see if there are both entry and exit wounds. Anyone who is bleeding from an open wound should be treated accordingly.

* Checking for a potential back or neck injury will be very important during your evaluation. See if there is any tenderness or pain that is stemming from the back or the neck, or if any cuts and bruises are present. There may also be the inability to move, or numbness, that will take place.

Tell the person to try not to move, and if there is any sort of back or neck injury suspected, you would want to make sure that you try to immobilize them. Simply placing some padding underneath their back where the natural arch is located can do this. For the neck, you will want to take the same step of putting some padding or a roll of cloth of some sort underneath the neck, further stabilizing it with heavy items or rocks on either side of the head.

* Looking over the body for potential fractures will be another important step in the evaluation process. For open fractures, you will need to be aware of any bleeding or bones that are sticking out of the skin, along with checking a pulse. For a closed fracture, you will want to check for discoloration, swelling, and an unusual body position, deformity and then check for a pulse.

* Burn assessment should also be done as you are evaluating the person who is injured. This will mean looking for areas of the skin that are blistered, reddened or even charred, or the appearance of clothing that is singed. Burns that appear on the upper torso or the face could lead to respiratory issues, so you will need to take careful measures to monitor breathing patterns. In addition, look for singed hair or any soot that could be around the nostrils or mouth.

* Is there a head injury? Some of the signs that can be present when there is a head injury of some sort can include, fluid coming from the nose, mouth, ears or the injury site, confusion, slurred speech, pupils that are unequal, sleepiness, loss of consciousness or memory, staggered gait, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, paralysis, bruising around the eyes or behind the ears, convulsions or twitching.

General Measures

There could be several types of conditions that will call for immediate attention, including a lack of breathing, inadequate/blocked airways and an excessive amount of blood loss. A casualty that you are trying to help, who does not have a cleared airway or is not breathing, could end up dying from an overall lack of oxygen. Blood loss in excess can lead to shock, whereas shock can lead to death. Controlling the blood loss will be imperative to make sure that the person is going to maintain proper circulation.

Each wound that you come across should be looked at as having been contaminated, as germs are everywhere. If there is any sort of an instrument or debris that has made its way into the body, this is also prime breeding ground for bacterial infection. Even if the wound has the potential for having germs, you will still need to dress it until proper medical attention can be given. This will mean dressing up the wound as quickly as you can, so that no further contamination takes place.

If you have a person who is lying on their stomach, you will need to try to roll them in a cautious manner, so that you do not twist them in any way. This can lead to further complications of their neck, back or even a spinal injury. When the airway seems to be blocked or the person is not breathing, you can try simply lifting their head or tilting it in a manner so that the chin is tilted upward. This action actually works to help pull the tongue up and away from the air passage that is located in the throat.

If it is suspected that there may be any sort of foreign material, even vomit, in the mouth, you will need to try to remove it. This can be done by simple tilting the head (only if no back or neck trauma seems to be present) and then doing a finger sweep to remove as much as you can.

Look to see if the chest is rising and then falling again for proper breathing. At the same time, you will want to get as close as possible, to see if you can hear any air that might be escaping when exhalation takes place. You can also look to see if you can feel any sort of airflow on your cheek as you lean inward. If the person does not resume breathing, rescue breathing methods should be your next step.

- Rescue Breathing -

It is important that you try to remain as calm as you can while you act quickly, so that rescue breathing can be done as soon as possible. Using chest compressions, mouth to mouth, mouth to nose, and of course positioning the head and neck to keep the airway open can do this.

With the person on their back, kneel next to the side of their body as closely as you can. Simply work to locate the lower portion of the rib case with your fingers, and then run your fingers up to the notch area. Place your middle finger on the notch along with your index finger and middle finger. Then, along the lower portion of the breastbone is where you will want to place the heel of your hand. Lock your fingers with your other hand, straighten, and then lock elbows and begin chest compressions.

Each of the thrusts that you do with a chest compression should have enough pressure to push the breastbone down between 1 to 2 inches. You also need to be sure that you are delivering them quickly and uniformly. You can go between chest compressions and your choice of breathing measures, until you get the person to breathe on their own again.


Believe it or not, every year there are many expectant mothers who find themselves in a situation where they are unable to get to a hospital, in time to deliver their baby with medical staff present. Whenever there is a birth that seems imminent and there is no time to get the right help, you will have to know what to do, so that both mother and child are able to make it through the process safely.

Labor is divided up into three stages, the first of which being when the womb starts the contraction process, making room to bring the baby down the birth canal. The second stage of labor is where the mother will have to start bearing down or pushing along with the contractions, to help the baby through the birth canal. The third and final stage is when the afterbirth, or placenta, will need to be expelled.

Stage One

During this initial stage of labor, you will want to try to keep the mother occupied as best you can, providing that she does not get too tired. You will want to keep her relaxed through the contractions, reminding her to breathe deeply and slowly. Some laboring mothers will need to make time to expel urine or empty the bowels, to help relieve a bit of the pressure that might be experienced. Once you know that a baby is on the way, you will need to try to get help as soon as possible, while moving her to a comfortable location where she can rest. Then move or reposition her as needed, with her back properly supported.

Once the mother begins to dilate, there could be some cramping (contractions) in the lower abdomen and pains in the lower portion of the back. While the labor starts to progress, she will notice that the contractions will last longer, and they will often become much stronger and more regular. When the contractions reach a point that they last just under a minute and are coming every few minutes, the birth of the baby is approaching quickly.

Throughout the first stage, it will be helpful to time the contractions and monitor them as closely as possible. Most laboring mothers will find that standing or walking will be very helpful, and she may find that eating a small amount of food and sipping on liquids will provide some relief. Never leave the mother alone, and avoid all temptation to clear any secretions, as this can actually contaminate the area of the birth canal, prior to delivery.

Relaxation is something that is very important, along with proper breathing techniques. Back rubs can be helpful throughout the initial stages of labor, just before the delivery process takes place. Once the womb is almost fully opened up, the baby will be ready to make its way through the birth canal.

Stage Two

During the second stage of labor, the contractions will be a bit different. With each one, the mother may find that she has to push, or bear down. Whenever this feeling comes on, she should take a deep breath and then gently, yet firmly, push. Small resting periods can take place between each contraction at this point, so that she can ready herself for the next push.

You will always want to stay as calm as you can during this stage, as well as reminding the mother to stay calm and focused. If you are in a semi-public place in an emergency situation and waiting for help to arrive, it will be important that you discourage any onlookers. Be sure that they are not crowding the mother, as she gets ready to deliver.

Always look for sterile and clean materials to use. This could be clean towels, clothing or even newspaper, if that is all that is available. If lying on the ground is necessary, you will want to make sure that you place something underneath her. At all times, you will want to refrain from any contact with the vaginal area, until the time comes for assistance.

Work with the mother to see what her preference seems to be for delivery. Some women feel more comfortable in a kneeling position with their legs apart, while others will opt for laying down on their back with their knees upward and far apart. Remind her to breath through the delivery process, and to try to pant instead of pushing, until the baby's head has cleared the birth canal, along with both of the shoulders.


While the baby works through the birth canal, it might be necessary to massage the area of the perineum with your hand. Look out for areas that will start to turn white, as they will be more apt to tear with the pressure of the baby coming through. A good tip is to do this massaging motion to maintain redness as a contraction is taking place. During a contraction, the mother is less likely to feel the massaging of the skin or she could become irritated.

Once the baby's head is crowning, you can keep a hand in position to apply slight pressure so that the head does not come through too fast, as this could lead to tearing. Gently wipe the baby's face with a clean or sterile cloth, and make sure that the cord is not around the neck. If you happen to notice that the cord is present, you will want to hook it using your finger, and then gently pull it up and over the baby's head. In some cases the cord could be wrapped around more than once, or it could be too tight to move it, so you can wait and see if it can simply be moved after the baby is fully delivered.

Watch carefully to make sure that the baby is progressing all the way through the canal, or you may have to clamp and cut the cord to deliver the baby quickly. Failing to deliver the baby quickly enough could lead to a lack of oxygen, which will be dangerous. If it seems as though several contractions have gone by without full presentation of the shoulders, you may need to use your hands to try to hook a finger or two under the armpit of the baby, gently rotating counterclockwise and then pulling slightly.

When the baby's head begins to emerge, it will move from a facedown position to an upward position. Here, you will want to cradle the head, helping the shoulders to deliver. Once the shoulders fully emerge, you will often find that the rest of the body will come out in a quick motion. This is where you will want to grab a clean cloth or blackout, so that you can cover the baby, and then work on swaddling to clean the baby slightly, remembering to note the time of birth.

The next step calls for helping to expel any fluid that may be left in the mouth and airway of the baby. Carefully grasping the baby by the ankles and supporting the shoulders, you can raise the body just slightly above the head to allow the mucous and liquid to flow out. If all is well, the baby should start breathing and crying after this step.

If you do not notice that the baby begins breathing, you can work your finger into the mouth in order to gently clean any mucous away. You can then rub the baby's back to try to stimulate crying. When there is still no breathing present, you will want to work to put air into the baby's lungs, by using gentle mouth-to-mouth. A good rule with a newborn is small puffs of air, roughly 20 per minute.

If the umbilical cord is long enough, you can pass the baby to the mother so that she can hold him or her in her arms. For a cord that is too short, simply place the baby on her abdomen and then help her hold the baby there. You will not be able to cut the umbilical cord until the afterbirth, or placenta, is fully delivered.

Stage Three

The delivery of the placenta can take place once the womb expels it, which could take from a few minutes, up to a couple of hours after the baby is delivered. You should never attempt to pull the placenta out using the umbilical cord. Right after childbirth, the mother may have some additional bleeding and/or clotting that will be present. You can try to encourage the mother to begin breastfeeding the baby, which is helpful for contractions that will help to deliver the placenta.

Watch for hemorrhaging, make sure that the mother is not going into shock and keep her comfortable. Hopefully, help will be on the way very soon. Until that time, you can pat yourself on the back for helping to deliver a brand new life into this world without medical help.

Stay there with the mother until someone who is a trained medical professional can relieve you or the ambulance service arrives. Most emergency births will turn out to be normal, however proper caution should always be taken. You need to keep everything as clean as possible, stay calm, keep the mother calm and reassure her every step of the way.


As a family, it is always going to be a good idea for you to have a plan in place, in the case of a variety of different emergency situations. This will not only include details that you will want to go over for a plan of movement and safety, but you should also put together a helpful survival or supplies kit that includes everything that you need.

Get Started

Look around your home to see what you can use for supplies. Believe it or not, you may have a number of things that are already on hand that can be packed up for a survival kit. If you need certain items, take the time to make a list, jotting down everything important. Decide where the best place will be to store your supplies. You may be able to pack some food together to keep in a single container, or you can line it up on a shelving unit so that you can rotate it out once in a while, to keep the expiration dates in order.

Family Meeting

Planning will be very important. Discuss any types of disasters that could take place in the area of the country where you live, explaining how important it is to prepare and know how to respond. Talk about what should be done if you need to evacuate, and then be sure to practice any of your plans so that everyone is familiar with them. Once six months have gone by, reevaluate your plans, check up on the food supplies and kit to make sure that everything is in order and current, and then practice your plan again for a refresher.

Food Suggestions

The types of foods that you choose can be based upon the preferences and needs of the members of your family. However, it is going to be best to go with items that are low in salt and packed in water, whenever possible.

- Canned Vegetables: whole kernel corn, carrots, kidney beans, peas, green beans, baby potatoes, beets, etc.

- Canned Meat/Protein Items: spam, chili, tuna, chicken, filled raviolis, beef stew, corned beef, etc.

- Canned Fruits: peaches, applesauce, apricots, pears, mandarin oranges, fruit cocktail, etc.

- Cereals: shredded wheat, Chex (any variety), Cheerios, corn flakes, Kix, bran, etc.

- Quick Snacks: nuts, raisins, granola bars, protein bars, dried fruits, etc.

Again, it is important that you try to remember to rotate these food supplies every six months, to keep the expiration dates as far out as possible. If you need to take from this reserved supply at any time, simply keep a note board hanging near the stores of food, to let you know what needs to be replaced on your next shopping venture.

Helpful Storage Tips

Keep foot items covered tightly at all times.

Store food in a spot that is cool and dry. A dark area is also preferable.

Wrap up any crackers or cookies and place them in a plastic bag in another container that is airtight.

Opening cans or food boxes should be done so carefully, so that you have the ability of closing them again tightly when you are done using them.

Carefully inspect all of your food items to make sure that they are not spoiled before using them.

Any opened packages of dried fruits, nuts or sugar should be emptied into a jar with a screw top or another airtight container, to keep pests from getting inside.

Always use the food items prior to them going bad. Once you use them, be sure to replace them with supplies that are fresh.

A great tip is simply marking all of the food items with the date purchased. This can be done with a marker or a good ink pen. Place the newer items either in the back or the bottom of the area where they are being stored, and have the older items in front.


Even with the best planning, you still could find yourself in an emergency situation. The four basic requirements for survival in the wild will be shelter, water, food and warmth. It goes without saying that any sort of survival situation can be traumatic for many people, and the impact that it will have always depends on the circumstances at hand. Someone who has been in a car accident or has broken down in a remote area will have a different set of circumstances, than someone who has fallen and hurt themselves while hiking or trekking on foot.


This type of stress is generally defined as the way in which someone will react to the pressure being put on him or her due to the situation at hand.

Stress Reaction

There will often be natural reactions to stress that should be expected and recognized. These reactions will often include frustration, anger, fear, depression and anxiety. Remember that the best thing to do is to not overreact to these reactions, as it can cause anyone in your group or situation to become agitated. There could be anti-social behavior, difficulty when making decisions and even angry outbursts.

Common Stressors

The events known for causing stress are often referred to as stressors. These stressors that can impact survival will include fatigue, heat, cold, hunger, thirst, pain, fear, boredom and loneliness.


Realizing that you are in a critical, survival situation will mean never being afraid to honestly appraise what it going on in front of you. It will be important for you to be able to employ survival tactics, despite any stressors that are in your way. Your life, as well as the lives of other people who may be relying on you, will depend on your ability to survive medically, when help might not be on the way. It is important to take into consideration emotional resources as well as your physical strength, when you are in the initial stages of survival.

Stay As Focused As Possible

In order to stay focused on some of the basic requirements that should be met in a survival situation, you can consider:

- What is the temperature? Should I be looking into starting a fire to stay warm?

- Will there be a need to have shelter from the elements? Where can I go to stay safe?

- How much water is available and where will I be able to go to get more?

- How much food is on hand? Is there a way to get more if I need it?

Survival Reasoning

Whenever you are put in a survival or emergency situation, you will need to determine your best possible course of action. Understanding and reasoning will include:

1. Situation review

2. Determine the goal

3. What is impacting your survival?

4. Map out all options available to you

5. Choose a course of action

6. Formulate a plan

The execution of your plan will include a course of action that will get you through what is ahead. You need to take into consideration any roles of the people you are with, tasks at hand, methods to be used, boundaries that you have set into place and any special equipment that you have and need to use. If you are in a survival situation where you are in a plane or a vehicle, you should try to stay with it. If you are on foot, you will need to establish a camp along with group leaders, to help organize a plan for action

Whenever possible, you will need to put a plan in place, not only for the control of your water supply, but also for the distribution. If you are going to need to procure more water, you will need to put a plan in place to get it safely.

Shelter is another area where you will need to act swiftly, so that you can make a plan and gather whatever is necessary. Take into consideration any items that you have on hand and see if you can put together a team to build the shelter. Prior to construction, you will want to see what areas are available and the construction style that will be best.

You need to be able to stay warm while you are in a survival situation, which will call for strategies and coping. Put into gear a plan for gathering fuel, and looking for accelerants that may be able to help, along with fire starting methods.

It is going to be important that you control the rationing out of any food that is available. If you do not have much food, you will want to see if anyone that might be with you in your group, can make their way out to procure more food supplies.

Try to determine your position in conjunction to other identifiable landmarks in the area. After doing so, you can set boundaries for movement, and even put out rescue signals to hopefully draw some attention to your location from passing vehicles, aircraft and even hikers, depending on where you are. It might be possible for you to put together a fire that can be manned 24 hours a day.


Each year, there are a number of people who will die in a survival situation, simply because they do not have access to shelter or a good water supply. Lack of water can be even more detrimental, when there is the addition of excessive heat and exposure to the elements. Basically speaking, the average person may be able to survive for anywhere from three to five days without water, depending on the climate that they are in. However, there are some instances where people have ended up perishing within a few hours of being lost.

It is always important that you try to conserve your water as much as possible, including the amount of water that you already have within your body. Water is necessary to help replace any fluid that you might have lost. So taking the necessary measures to conserve fluids that you lose will help you to require less intake of water.

Without any water, you could survive for 3 to 5 days. With one liter of water, you may be able to last for about 5 1/2 days, 2 liters can give you about 6 days, 5 liters may give you 7 days, and finally, 11 liters will potentially give you 9 days to work with. Of course, your actions will always have an impact on the ways in which the water stores in your body will go down.

Fluid is lost from the body in several ways:

Perspiration: Perspiration, or sweat, is made up of water and salt, which can vary in levels from person to person. Perspiring is a natural process of the body that is meant to cause a cooling effect where moisture will evaporate from the surface of the skin. A person who is able to rest in the shade will often lose around 2 liters of water from their body in around a 24-hour period, so it will be important to keep acridity to a minimum. Conserving existing bodily fluids will help to fight against rises in temperature.

Urination: Another normal function of the body, this is something that cannot be prevented. At the same time, you can actually hold your urine as long as comfortable, so that you can keep the amount of fluid that your body will be losing to a minimum. Never, in any circumstances, should you drink urine, unless you have had the ability to distill it properly. With that being said, you can apply urine to the surface of your skin to help try to keep some moisture in and keep your body temperature down.

Crying: This is something that should be avoided, no matter how stressful the situation might be that you are in. If there are children with you, try to keep their mind off of the situation, so that they do not cry, losing precious fluids.

Vomiting: This is something that could potentially be avoided by staying out of the heat, keeping away from bad or harmful foods, etc. If there is some sort of injury present that has vomiting as a symptom, it may not be able to avoid.

When To Consume Water

It is always important that you try to drink water so that you can replace the fluids that you have lost from your body. Yet if you are not able to get more water to drink and you are limited in the water that you already have, it is going to be even more important that you take tiny sips, so that you replace fluids without using all of your stores. This little bit of water in smaller increments will help increase your chances of surviving, for up to a half a day longer than if you drank your water faster.

Procuring Water

The first things that you should do in any sort of a survival situation should include establishing a quality way for a usable water supply. The best thing that you can do is look for ground water from a number of different sources.

* Rock Formations - You will usually find that a rock formation is a common place that will have water seepage that will come out from the group. This is especially so, wherever the land is both undulating and rugged. You may also have a good chance of finding some water in areas that may appear dry initially, simply because there can be hidden portions that will have rain catching areas hidden within. While the rain will often soak quickly into soil, it will be more likely to pool up if there is a rocky surface.

* Creek Beds - It can be fairly easy for find creek bed areas that will be useful for water collection, as you will be able to recognize them as having lush vegetation and taller trees that will follow a course or pattern with the waters. If there has not been much rain the creek bed might be a bit dry, however there still can be some areas that may have a little bit of water pooled up. Or you could even dig with some success. Water can also be extracted from some of the mud or sand simply by soaking a cloth or rag in the soil, and then taking a container to use for wringing it out.

* Salt Lakes - Once a rain has fallen, the top portion of a salt lake is actually fresh water. You can siphon the fresh water off by using tubing from a survival kit, or using a grass straw or other item comparable that you might have around you.

* Animal Trails - It is easy to remember that animals will need water just as humans, so they will often travel to areas where there is water present, even when the weather has been dry. Try to see if you can spot some areas where animal prints are found on the ground, and chances are, they will lead you to some good sources of water that you can use to rehydrate yourself.

* Windmills - Most often, you will find a windmill has been erected on a station or a farm, where there will also be a dam or well. You will usually be able to see a windmill for many miles, and you will also find some animal tracks that will head in the same direction. However, when you find a water source at a windmill, you will always need to make sure that it has not gone salty at all.

* Water Seepage - There are some locations where you will find water that will be near the surface whenever there are soaks, water springs or at the base of rock piles or cliffs. These will be areas where you will notice thriving, lush vegetation as a good indicator.

* Dew - While this can be a very tedious collection process, there are some times of the day where you can get quite a bit of a collection. You can also expedite the process by placing cloth around your ankles and walking through a field that is drenched in dew, early in the morning or late at night. You can simply squeeze out the moisture that you collect into a container, and then keep repeating until you have a good amount. Some people have also been known to wipe down areas that have dew on them, with a cloth, to use a similar collection method.

There are also many other collection methods that can be used to gather water depending on the level of skill, the time that you may be facing out on your own and surviving, and the number of resources that you happen to have available to you. This could include various collection processes, from the roots of various trees, to digging your own still in the ground. You could even produce a method that you will be able to use so that you can distill seawater to make it drinkable. It all depends on the area where you are.

Purification Of Water

It is extremely important that you try to make sure that the water you drink will be clean and clear, so that you do not have to worry about any sort of internal infection, as you may find that this will lead to an even further loss of fluid. Purifying natural water for drinking can be done using a filtration device, or by boiling it. Keep in mind that water that contains salt should never be consumed, unless you are able to distill it properly.


It goes without saying that you need to be drinking water that is as clear as it can be, which may be able to be achieved simply by allowing it to settle for around 12 hours. You could even strain it, to remove any matter that might be suspended within. A good way of providing clarification is making a filter on your own from a shirtsleeve, the leg of a pair of trousers or even some other cloth that you happen to have on hand. It might take a little time, but you will be able to have the water filter through into another container, and all of the sediment or matter will be left on top of the cloth.


Even if water is clear, this does not mean that there is no bacteria present. In order to really make sure that the water you are drinking is free from harmful bacteria, you can sterilize the water in a number of different ways. One would be using a sterilization tablet that you may have in your survival kit, and another would be boiling it to try to make it bacteria free.


While you are in a survival situation, there will be times that you need to make sure that you are able to remain safe in some sort of shelter that will protect you from the elements. Not only will the elements be dangerous, but you may also come into contact with a number of animals and insects. Along with that, it will be a big help psychologically, when you have a place to stay that makes you feel as though you are safe. It can make a big difference, while you are trying to survive when help is not on the way.

Think of trying to use a vehicle as shelter, whenever possible. You will have shelter from the rain, impending weather, sun and even the potential for keeping out the cold air during the evening hours. You may even be able to add tarps or blankets, to cover portions of the vehicle or make lean-to areas around the outside.

Natural shelters can also be put together using some of the simple materials to be found in nature. Looking around you, it will be easy to find strips of bark, vines, and certain types of grass or even large branches that you can use. With some thought, you may be able to put together somewhat of a makeshift tent. Above all, it might just be your ability to improvise that will allow you to come up with a great shelter, which will help you through a time of trying to survive in the wild.


It cannot be stressed enough that staying warm, whether you are simply lost in the wild or injured, will be one of the most important things that you can do. Even if the weather does not seem to be quite as cold, you can end up enduring lowered body temperatures: if there is some sort of infection that you are developing, if you have wounds that should be addressed or even if you are not getting enough fluids into your body. There are many unnecessary deaths that take place each year from people who got too cold while they were stuck in an emergency/survival situation.

Lighting a Fire Without Matches

Fire is undoubtedly a great asset when you are in an emergency situation, as you can use it to cook, to signal for help, to warm you and to sterilize certain items. In order to start a fire, you are going to need certain instruments, or at least a good bit of knowledge when it comes to combustion. This is a process that will require the addition of heat, oxygen and some sort of fuel. The fuel that can be used to start a fire could be dry animal manure, dried vegetable matter, reactive chemicals, timber and kindling.

Heat can be provided with the simple introduction of friction, by making spark, using a chemical reaction or even creating a magnification of some sort. Overall, oxygen is a very essential competent, if you are going to produce any sort of a flame from your heat and fuel. It will be important that you pay attention to the airflow that is present, as you are trying to produce fire.

Hopefully you will have some sort of fire starting material with you in a survival or emergency kit that you have, or even with some of the supplies that you have on hand. If not, you will have to rely on your use of friction to bring about a spark that you can nurture into a flame. When you have little or no resources to start a fire easily, it will be more important than ever that you keep the fire going as long as possible, once you finally get it going.


Hopefully, you will never have to be faced with any sort of situation where you will be lost or injured, when there will not be help on the way in the immediate future. There are always natural catastrophes that can happen, and even emergency situations that will call for you to take care of your own medical care in the meantime. If medical personnel are not going to be readily available when they are working on a mass casualty event, you can learn how to survive for a few days. All of the information that you have just read through will be able to help you, regardless of the circumstances that you are faced with.

While you will not be certified after simply reading this material, you will still have a better understanding of what can be done to help yourself, or others that are around you. Whether it is trying to assess the people that are in your group, your family members or even seeing what has happened to you that will need first aid attention, there is a lot to be said about having a good amount of knowledge and skill on your side.

* You will know what to try to do when all of the comforts of our normal life and the technology that we are used to are not going to be readily available.

* You will possess a better understanding when it comes to hydration, certain medical emergencies, preventative medicine, basic first aid and even sanitation and warmth.

* It will also show you just how important it can be to have a good plan in place, should an emergency situation arise. Additionally, you will know that it is a good idea to have an emergency or survival kit made up and ready to take along with you, which you can refer to should anything happen.

Whenever you are faced with the end of the line, in knowing that the medical wellbeing of your group could be in danger, there will be a variety of adjustments that you can make. Your medical supplies will not only need to be accumulated, but you will also need to know how to use them properly. Any medical supplies or information that you have will also need to be properly adjusted, so that you can fit the situation. This can be a big responsibility that will take a lot of courage on your part. However if you remain strong, you will be able to pull yourself and your group together, so that all of you will be able to make it through whatever is standing in your way, until help is able to arrive.