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Unofficial Biography of Freud

Author: Haydn Thomas

Unofficial Biography of Freud

Book Series: Unofficial Biographies


Anybody who has at least halfway studied human psychology and development, or taken such a class, has come into contact with the theories of Sigmund Freud. He is considered the godfather of psychological theories and set the tone for a lot of the study that still remains today. His most famous theories touch on how we as people develop throughout a variety of stages, and how sexuality is shaped throughout the process. Some of his theories have been controversial, but remain for their merit, nonetheless.

It can be said that a person cannot truly understand psychology without learning about some of the theories of Sigmund Freud. People who want to learn more about these theories will want to take a class, or read up on some of these theories, because much has been written about them throughout the years. Respected people throughout the field have studied the mental processes that he lays out. These theories are still taught in psychology classes, from grade school to PhD level in university.

By understanding the man himself, people will be able to get a better understanding of how he came up with these theories and what kind of merit he put into them. There has been plenty written about his life. This will allow people to start from the ground up, when learning about Freud and everything that comes with the territory.

This guide is an excellent resource that will allow people to learn all that they can about this, in order to make the most out of the situation, both for their personal information and to take oneís education about the subject matter to the next level. Read on to learn more about this, in order to get the context that one needs.


Before people try to understand his theories and his work in the field, it is important to figure out what made Sigmund Freud the man that he is. First and foremost, Sigmund Freud was born May 6, in the year 1856. He was born in Austria, in the area of Freiberg, to be exact. His parents were Galician Hasidic Jews who got married one year before he was born. His fatherís name was Jakob and his motherís name was Amalia. Amalia was two decades younger than Jakob, who sold wool. Freud also had two half-brothers named Philipp and Emanuel.

While his family was Jewish, they had begun moving away from the religion by the time that Sigmund Freud was born. His original name was Sigismund Schlomo Freud. His family had originally bounced around to different areas of Europe, due to religious persecution. When growing up, Sigmund quickly took a liking to reading, as his family was well versed in the Torah religious text, and always had an expansive library available to their children. Sigmund Freud took a liking to Shakespeare when he was young, and this shaped much of his taste when it came to arts, culture and intellectual curiosity.

He loved to read Shakespeareís sonnets and plays as a child, such as Sonnet 73 and plays like Othello and Macbeth. Sigmund Freud was very advanced for his age, since he was able to read well above his age and quickly took a liking to an expansive variety of fields throughout the process. When he was young, he took a particular liking to the fields of health and medicine, in addition to studying a variety of philosophers that came before him. His mind was wide open at the time, as he would be taking the steps that would later allow him to become the godfather of his own field.

By the time that Freud was three, his family had already moved to England and throughout the next few years, moved to Leipzig and Vienna. Freud was so much ahead of his peers that he enrolled in high school when he was only 9 years old. Not only did he enjoy medicine from a young age, he possessed a love for learning a variety of language. In fact, by the time he was 17, Sigmund Freud had learned how to speak more than 8 different languages, including Greek, Latin, Spanish, English and France.

He was well ahead of his peers by the time he was ready for university, which gained him admission to the University of Vienna, a prominent university. Though Sigmund Freud originally thought of studying philosophy, he decided to change his major to law, when he entered the University of Vienna. However, after spending some time at the university, he became part of the medical school faculty. It was during this time that he truly gained his perspective on life, which would eventually lead to many of the theories that he came up with.

He studied under some of the greats, and this allowed him to truly flex his creativity and intellectual curiosity, while doing all that he needed to, in order to build the foundation that would lead to him becoming the man that he was. There are a variety of theories and research theses that he came up with, before graduating from the university in the year of 1881. He graduated with a medical degree, which allowed him to truly expand his information and knowledge of the field. This in turn helped him come up with a variety of theories that would stand true throughout the years.

When somebody wants to truly understand the life and times of Sigmund Freud, they should also make sure that they have a grasp about his personal life. In this way they will get what they need in order to have the background information that is important. People who want to make sure that they are able to learn what comes with the territory will want to gain some background information about the man, so that they can understand what shaped his theories and background life.

During his time at Vienna, he learned a lot about the human central nervous system, and developed a great understanding of the physical human body. He nearly abandoned his study and his career because he was in need of money, and after graduating, did not have much of an income. In addition to this, he was married to a woman named Martha and eventually had six children. These children include Sophie, Anna, Mathilde, Jean, Ernst and Oliver.

In an attempt to bring some income to his family and to take care of his many children, Sigmund Freud opened up his own medical practice where he would see patients throughout the area. As he treated patients, he began to develop a deep curiosity about what caused the psychological issues that came with the territory. It was during this time that he began to delve into the world of unconscious thought that people deal with, but may not understand how to put into words. The reason that Freud took such a liking to this area of medicine is that it was an area that not many people had touched on at the moment. There was little evidence around about it, and so he did not have much of a basis for people to build upon. He essentially started from scratch in many different situations.

A lot of the initial research that Freud did into a personís subconscious came from their supposed repressed memories, particularly from childhood. This was controversial and remained as such 100 years later, and even today, because other people have not touched on this type of information in the way that Freud did. When Sigmund Freudís father died in the year 1896, it marked a time that Freud sent his research into hyper drive. He began to assess his own thoughts and dreams, and how he was dealing with and coping with the death of his father. And this helped him further his research by leaps and bounds.

This was also around the same time that Sigmund Freud began highlighting the theory known as the Oedipus complex. It is this complex, which states that children generally have a certain type of love for their mother and a certain level of contempt with their mother. This is essentially the hallmark of Freudís research, because this is the theory that people still remember to this day, when it comes to Sigmund Freud.

When looking into Freudís personal life, it is also critical to look into the thought process of Freud when dealing with his personal life. Freud was a cigarette smoker and eventually chewed tobacco also. He was known to suffer from insomnia, which perhaps led to much of his research, since he spent many hours up late at night, conducting research and experimentation. There were also many rumors that he had an affair with his sister-in-law, who was younger than Freud. His sister-in-law came to live with Freud and his wife, after the man she was supposed to get married to, died. Carl Jung, a fellow studier of psychology, particularly perpetuated this rumor.

A lot has been written by and about Sigmund Freud, which is why it is very important that people gain a basis of understanding about the information that he came up with. Anybody who wants to learn more about him will be able to, because there is plenty of information written that will allow people to do their research and get everything that they need along the way. Many people want to learn about the man and the theories that he came up with. This will allow people to truly delve into the field and make sure that they learn everything that they need to, about the field, and about the personal life of the man who came up with them. This is an expansive field that has been studied by people who want to learn, how we as people, develop throughout the years. Since Freud touches on issues that stem from childhood and state how they play a role throughout the years, it shows just how important the formative years are for a person.

A person can take this area of research and make sure that it plays into how children are educated, and how they are parented. It is very important to make sure that people have some semblance or understanding of this information, in order to figure out whether a person wants to go into this field of study, or if they just have an interest in the information overall. People will be able to do this by studying the godfather of the field, because studying Freud gives people a great understanding of what comes with the territory, and how they can expand that information throughout the process.

This will allow people to get excellent background information that they need in the field, so that they can build upon it and refine it as needed. Any person who wants to learn more about Freud should either take a class or study up on his theories, on their own time. Thankfully, there is a wealth of information that people can use and research when it comes to this aspect, and that gives people all that they need in order to make sure that they find all of the information that is needed. Whether a person wants to gain a basic understanding of Freud, or wants to delve into these projects deeply, they will have the opportunity to do this at their own pace.

Take full advantage of this guide in order to learn all about Freud and the theories that he came up with. By gaining an understanding of these theories and everything else that comes with them, people will be able to build upon their understanding of the field of psychology, and how people grow and develop throughout the years. Anybody interested in this information will need to do all that they can in order to develop this sort of information, throughout the years.


Sigmund Freud is a man who had a number of scientific theories. Many of these theories came from hands-on research. These theories have lasted the test of time, in that they have been studied by a number of people in science and psychology throughout the years. The main thing people should keep in mind about these theories is that there is no one right answer. Sigmund Freud was ahead of his time with a lot of these theories, because many of them still have merit and remain important, to this day.

There are plenty of scientists and researches that have borrowed and expounded upon the theories of Sigmund Freud. They have done that in order to delve deeper into the mind of humans, to figure out what exactly what makes them tick and to find out how they develop. It is very important to study these theories in order to learn about the field itself, and to understand how people use them in doctorís offices every day. The very nature of clinical psychology is based upon a lot of the work of Sigmund Freud, which is why he is still so respected and revered, to this day.

In order to learn about these theories, it is important to break them down point by point, to figure out what Sigmund Freud was trying to say with each. He has a few theories that have remained popular throughout the years and there is much debate about them still going on. By breaking down his theories scientifically, people are able to draw their own conclusions and figure out what it is that they choose to believe, about the mental properties and psychological development of human beings as a whole. Start by reading up on a few of these below.

The Medicinal Properties Of Cocaine

While many people are aware of Sigmund Freudís Oedipus and Elektra complex theories, some people might not be fully aware of some of the lesser known stances that he took throughout his life, and during his times as a scientific researcher. One theory that Freud stood by in his early years in medicine is that the drug cocaine has a number of medicinal properties, and so should be used by people who need it. Specifically, he stated that the drug cocaine could be a cure for a number of different mental health issues, and even some physical issues.

He wrote some papers to this effect, mainly revolving around his personal use of the drug, which is actually well documented. Sigmund Freud said that cocaine could be used both as an anti-depressant and as an anesthetic, depending upon the circumstances. For some years, Freud would recommend the use of the drug to his colleagues for a number of issues, including helping them beat morphine addiction. He used it himself, and some have said that he also became addicted to it.

Once more research was done into cocaine, it became clear that the drug was highly addictive, and that it was not the safest way to cure ailments. Once this happened, the reputation of Sigmund Freud took a hit within the medical industry and caused some damage to his reputation. When this word got out, Freud began to grow quiet about his endorsements of the drug, but still used it in his personal life, in order to cure some ailments. He eventually ceased all use of it, due to the fact that it was, indeed, highly addictive and known to cause some physical issues. Within the scientific community at that time, Freudís reputation was still somewhat damaged by his cocaine use, however. In fact, some people within the field began to dispute some of his theories, stating that he was addicted to cocaine when he came up with them.

This is why it is important to look at Freudís body of work as a whole, and from an objective point of view, so that people can truly gain an understanding for themselves. The beauty of science is that people can have differing opinions about subject matter, since they are typically based in theories that are molded and that change over time. Freud was correct in the sense that cocaine could cure some of the ailments that he listed. It was used for its medicinal properties, to cure people for some years, due in large part to the research that Sigmund Freud had conducted. Since he blazed the trail, others were able to take the research that he did and build upon it, in order to accept the portions that had merit and do further research to learn about the dangers of the drug. This thought process is still prevalent in this day and age, with drug culture being at an all-time high, and a number of states in the United States legalizing substances like marijuana for medicinal use.

By not being afraid to speak on these issues when it came to cocaine, one can say that Freud opened the door for medical marijuana research, years later. Like cocaine, marijuana is a substance that was largely demonized by the public, for years. But by posing the right questions, scientists were able to find a plethora of medical properties that cure people to this day. Unlike cocaine, it was found that marijuana is a lot safer than society as a whole had come to believe, and would be beneficial to patients who needed it.

By setting the groundwork in motion for this type of scientific theory, Freud was able to open these doors that countless scientists were able to walk through, for the betterment of society as a whole. This is why it is important to analyze the entire scope of Sigmund Freudís work, in order to learn how he operated and how his work remains vitally important, to this day. Whether a person agrees with every single theory is not the important part of the issue; what is important is the scientific framework that allowed him to come up with these theories.

Freudís Theories On The Development Of Human Sexuality

Perhaps the most important of Freudís theories, as well as the most well-known, revolve around sexual development. His theories detail why people do the things they do later in life, and allow people to truly understand the nature of human development. These theories are well used and respected amongst the industry, but also have been the source of controversy for some years. It is important that anybody looking to understand these theories read into them thoroughly, in order to make sure that they are able to get the most out of the situation, and that they are truly internalizing each issue.

These theories are taught in schools everywhere, and provide people with the ideas that have shaped the entire field as a whole. The theories are taught in grade schools and universities everywhere by people who truly understand the field. It would behoove a person to study these theories thoroughly, if they have an interest in the field of psychology and human development as a whole. Since Freud came up with these theories, people who understand how to apply them in real life situations have used them in a variety of different professional fields.

Anybody who wants to fully develop and use these theories should understand them intensely from a point of view that works. By taking these theories and making the most of them, they will be able to have life and will be used by professionals who can handle them and apply Freudís thought processes, when dealing with real life people.

To truly understand these different theories of sexual development, take advantage of it by reading into this information and making the most out of it.

1. The Oral Stage

The oral stage of sexual development is the very first one that human beings go through. This stage begins as soon as a person is born and comes out of the womb, and lasts through infancy, until a person is about 1 year old. This stage revolves a lot around lips and the mouth, as babies are exploring the world with their mouth. It is during this stage that they breast feed and they also begin putting everything into their mouth that they pick up. This is also the stage that parents have to be careful about, since children who crawl, tend to chew on everything or put it into their mouth to see what it is.

This stage of development revolves around kids being open to exploring everything. They are very immature during this stage, and look at the world based upon what they can get out of it and what others can do for them. It is during this stage that they cry profusely whenever they need something. They always want the attention of people who can help them out or give them something. During this stage, babies drink breast milk and eventually begin to eat solid food or chew on teething rings, which is part of the reason the mouth is so vitally important.

They can be fairly manipulative during this stage as well, as they begin to understand how to get people to pay attention to them, and may even fake crying in order to get their way. They begin babbling during this stage as well, as they try to put together words and make noises that they hear others make. The baby is highly impressionable and will be able to allow their personality to show in a variety of different ways.

2. The Anal Stage

It is during the anal stage that kids begin potty training and understand how their digestive system works. This stage lasts between the times that a child is 1 year old and lasts into the toddler age, when they are about 3 years old. It is during this stage that children begin to use the bathroom to empty their bowels and their bladder, and will become either anal retentive or anal expulsive. Many people use this phrase about adults who exhibit these traits. Those traits begin to manifest during the anal stage, when a person is still a very young child.

People who are anal-retentive tend to be very tidy and organized, to the point that it can be a bit excessive. On the flip side, people who are anal-expulsive typically live by the seat of their pants, and are more careless about these types of issues. They tend to be a bit more rebellious or reckless in areas of their life. They definitely do not exhibit the behaviors of being as neat and tidy. These traits may carry over into a personís later years of development. As they begin to understand how life works, they may become messy or disorganized.

This stage is a very important one, since children are beginning to form memories and are having conversations with adults and other children. These are the very formative years before a child enters school and begins to develop a slight understanding of how the world works, based on running around with their parents and asking a large series of questions. They will also begin eating a greater variety of foods, and perhaps understanding that life has more of a structure that does not just revolve around them getting what they want or asking for what they want.

3. The Phallic Stage

This stage of development deals largely with the genitalia and is also the point of view by which children begin having romantic interest, through the scope of love of their parents. It is at this point that Sigmund Freud states that boys and girls develop an Oedipus complex, which revolves around an intense period of love for their mother. The name Oedipus complex comes from the Greek play, in which the character unknowingly had sex with his own mother. Freud borrows the name, when making note that children have a special relationship with their mother that they might not previously have realized. It is also during this stage that children begin developing a sort of animosity against their father. They see their father taking away time with the mother and might develop feelings of jealousy. It is not uncommon for a child to immaturely believe that they will grow up to one day marry their mother. This should not be taken literally, as it simply revolves around children seeing outside of themselves and loving someone for the first time. Since it is the mother who was very nurturing to the child when they were babies, children tend to gravitate toward the mother as sort of a love interest.

On the flipside, Sigmund Freudís contemporary, Carl Jung, had a theory, which states that young girls develop an Electra complex. The Electra complex is the exact opposite, as it claims that girls begin to develop feelings of love for their father and feelings of animosity toward their mother. These theories gave birth to the idea of a mommaís boy or a daddyís girl, which gives them much credence to this day. This stage lasts from the time a child is about 3 years old, up until they are roughly 6 years old and ready to enter school.

4. The Latent Stage

According to Sigmund Freud, after children turns 6, their sexuality becomes latent. What this means is that they no longer have sexual feelings, and simply exist without having any kinds of sexual impulses. He takes it a step further by saying that children who do experience sexual impulses during this latent stage will not be fulfilled, if they have a fixation during this stage. This is the stage that lasts until puberty, which occurs at different ages in different people. Typically, puberty will begin when a person turns 10 or 11 years old. This period lasts until pre-teens and teenagers inevitably reach the stage that they begin having sexual urges.

These are very formative years when it comes to sexuality, because in a way, they begin to define how a person will spend their sexual years. For instance, people who have good relationships with their parents will typically enter puberty with balance and an idea of what to look for in a mate. Children who have rocky family lives and poor experiences with the opposite sex might have a harder time coping, once they actually do reach puberty.

Children are in school throughout this stage and will be socializing with other children who are also in the latent stage. During these years, it is typically no problem mixing boys with girls in class in a variety of situations, since they do not have the urges that teenagers get, late in middle school and during high school. This is also a period when things are fairly straightforward between a child and parent, whereas the relationship can sometimes get rocky once children reach the teenage years and become somewhat rebellious toward their parents and life in general.

5. The Genital Stage

This is the stage that teenagers and adults find themselves in, getting into relationships and having sexual relationships. This is when sexuality in general plays a large role in their life and their thought processes. The dynamics between the sexes change, as people start to become attracted to one another. This is the time in school that people become worried about being favored by the opposite sex, and when they begin to attend school dances and other social functions involving the opposite sex. It is also the time when they become more appearance oriented, in order to potentially attract a mate.

From puberty and beyond, sexual urges and interests are at their highest, and is when people may begin to watch pornographic movies or read pornographic literature. They will also masturbate as an outlet of self-sexual exploration, and to curb and deal with those urges. It is also during this stage that people begin to have sexual partners and learn what pleases them in the bedroom. During this stage, people begin dating and getting married, so that they can enjoy a relationship with another person and have children.

The sexual interests begin to reach their peak stage of maturity during the genital stage, allowing people to become fully actualized sexual beings. They are also able to put into perspective the different urges or impulses that they have been having throughout their lives. People who have a fixation during this stage often end up in sexual relationships that are not satisfactory and they may have trouble pleasing themselves. This is why Freud said that it is important to have a strong balance when it comes to sexuality, and be able to put all of these urges and sexual impulses into perspective. The stage lasts from puberty all the way into and throughout adulthood, until a person dies.

This is by far, the longest period of sexual development, because it is the last period of sexual development. This period also encounters the greatest amount of change, due to the fact that people begin to age, have children, go through menopause and experience a host of other issues that come with the territory. People will grow and develop throughout this stage, to the point that their sexuality and sexual interests begin to grow and change with each year of life. It is important for a person to remain engaged and understand things about themselves and their sexuality, so that they are able to understand and cope with these changes as they occur.

The stages of sexuality are Freudís most famous work and are still talked about to this day. He left his mark on science by coming up with these stages of development. Much of the scientific community assert that these stages have great merit, even if they do not always fully agree with every single part of the stages. A person cannot truly understand the work of Sigmund Freud without researching and understanding these stages of sexual development, so anyone who wants to learn about his lifeís work should probably start with this portion of it.


Before Sigmund Freud, no other scientist had done so much work into researching dreams and their meanings. As stated before, Sigmund Freud began intensely studying dreams after his father died. Once he lost his father, he began having a series of dreams that made him contemplate if there could be some deeper meaning, there beneath the surface. By even looking into dreams this thoroughly, Freud was far ahead of his time. He thought of dreams as a deep lifeline to the unconscious mind, teaching people things about those thoughts that they might actively have at the front of their minds. He said that dreams offer up clues into a personís inner being that will explain how they operate, in ways that they might not even be able to put into words.

At one point, he was worried about a patient, and surmised that he felt guilty because he was not able to do enough to truly help her. From this, he began taking notes about that dream and came up with the interpretation of wish fulfillment. In this case, he had wished that the patient would get well but that her lack of recovery was not his fault. Since he had a dream to that effect, he realized that the dream might be manifesting portions of his unconscious mind that he had not been dealing with. This was a major breakthrough in his research, and provided him with open and honest insight that he did not have previously. From here, he began to take full notes about dreams and made sure that he was able to pull out details that he had not paid attention to before. This was a necessary part of his research, and the theories that he came up with were based on them.

He also formed definitions about the formation and analysis of dreams. For instance, he ascertained that the portion of a dream that a dreamer remembers and is able to talk about is called the manifest content. Further, the portions of dreams that are forgotten, sometimes as soon as the person wakes up are called latent content. He was able to peel back the layers of dreams and made sure that there was meaning behind them, rather than just writing them off as simple dreams.

Aside from manifesting portions of our unconscious, Freud made a point of interpreting dreams, as a way of looking at the entire world as a whole. For instance, he came up with the variable of universal symbols, which might indicate general feelings, particularly dealing with sexuality. A universal symbol could be something like a candy cane acting as a phallic symbol, unearthing deep sexual urges that a person may not have known was there.

Above all, a major contribution that Freud made to science was making people more conscious of their dreams in the first place. Rather than just waking up and writing the dreams off as nonsense, he got patients to begin taking notes on a regular basis inside of dream journals. In doing this, people were able to notice and recognize trends among the types of dreams that they were having, night in and night out. This helped them realize that they were finding correlations between the dreams that they were having at night and different things that were going on in their life, which they were conscious of whenever they were awake. This break-through allowed patients to become cognizant of when they were actually dreaming. They could make a point of picking out some details of their dream and remembering them, without worrying about startling themselves awake.

When a person takes the subject matter and thinks about it, it is clear that Freudís research stands the test of time and is very important today. For instance, it is not uncommon for regular people to begin taking note of their dreams and wondering if they mean something.

In fact, when a person goes to a therapist to talk about their life, a big part of the conversation might revolve around the quality of sleep a person is experiencing, along with the nature of the dreams that they are having. This is a staple in the world of psychology now, to the point that Freud must be recognized for his contributions. It would not be that way if he had not taken the time and painstaking effort to analyze his own dreams and the dreams of his patients. By taking dreams and analyzing them, todayís doctor is able to point patients in the direction of information that they otherwise would not have been able to find out on their own.

A number of patients have begun the practice of lucid dreaming, which allows them to control their dreams and carry that information over into their personal lives. For instance, a person who has a speech coming up can control their dream, so that they are actually practicing the speech in their dream, while they are sleep. This has tremendous benefits and can make patients who are having nightmares not be afraid to go to sleep anymore.

By making patients know that their dreams might actually have meaning, they can see that the dreams canít harm them and can take the fantasy out of it. By breaking the dream down scientifically, a patient is able to recognize things about the way that they think, or pinpoint thoughts that they were not aware they were having at a particular period in their lives.

This is only made possible due to the hard work and experimentation of Sigmund Freud, which did a great deal to advance the field and the theory on dreams. People need to recognize this accomplishment. And they should read up on detailed information about how Freud recognizes the traits of a dream, so that they can apply it to their own lives, delve further into their subconscious mind and learn more about themselves.


Another one of Freudís famous contributions to the field of psychology and mental health revolves around the human psyche and particular states of mind that it consists of. This research has allowed people to understand more about the motivations of human beings as a whole, and provides insight into the way that the brain works. He did a great deal of experimentation and hypothesizing into the matter of the human psyche, in order to learn more about how the human mind works. One of the ways he did this is through the analysis of the ego, super ego and the id.

1. The Ego

It is not uncommon to hear people talk about a person having a big ego, when they are thinking too highly of themselves and getting out of control. However, it is important to understand the origin of this, and that there is scientific data and research associated with the ego. For starters, one can think of the ego as the portion of thought that revolves around pleasure and the avoidance of grief or pain. This part of the thought also houses consciousness, overall awareness and common sense. This is the portion of thought that recognizes oneís existence in the outside world and is highly based in realism.

For this reason, the ego is often referred to as the ĎIí. It is this part of thought that people recognize; they must behave in a certain way to fit into society. This portion of thought contains mechanisms that prevent people from acting out, in ways that might be detrimental to oneself in this manner. For instance, this could be the part of the thought process that prevents someone from taking all of the rolls at a business dinner, so that others can have some and so that they do not appear to be too greedy. This mechanism would work, even if a person had skipped meals and was hungry all day.

Unlike other portions of thought, this process understands that human beings have impulses and wants, but the ego tries to go about securing these things in a way that is realistic. It is a rational portion of the brain that allows humans to prevent bringing harm upon themselves, by taking the right forms of action. It is important to recognize that while this thought process fits into society and attempts to do things that fit in with societal norms, it is not a moral compass.

Rather than thinking about things under the scope of what is wrong or what is right, the ego is all about doing the right thing that will allow a person to get what they need, without bringing them harm, pain or grief. It allows people to solve problems in a practical manner, as opposed to getting needs met in a way that is destructive.

2. The Id

Aside from the ego, it is important the people recognize the thought process of id, which is also called the Ďití. A person can consider this portion of thought the most primitive. It is strictly biological and functions in the animal portion of peopleís thoughts and impulses. For instance, this is the portion of thought that controls sexual urges, or the need to procreate, the libido, the need to protect oneself, or act aggressively in certain situations, and other instinctual things that take place during the need to live and survive on this planet.

Unlike the ego, this portion of thought is made strictly to deal with getting what a person wants, at all costs. There is no regulating mechanism that prevents the id from getting what it wants. In fact, the pleasure principle portion of the id calls getting what a being wants the highest order. The difference between this portion of thought and others is that the id desires to be satisfied as quickly as possible, as opposed to worrying about what negative things might take place as a result. In fact, when the id does not get what it wants, Freud says that the human being will experience pain or discomfort.

This is the portion of a personís personality that might be dark, and could lead to destructive habits if not kept in check. It is the portion that wants a person to live by the seat of their pants, rather than worrying about how they will be perceived, or second guessing themselves. One might say that a person is living out the desires of their id when they are engaged in sexual intercourse, because this is a time when intellectual thought goes out of the window and people simply do what feels right to them.

This might also be the portion of thought that occurs when a person is intoxicated and allows their functional, rationale side to become dull, to the point that inhibitions are gone and a person says what they want and does what they want, without the fear of blowback or consequences. The id portion of thought also does not take into account the concept of time, since it wants what it wants, when it wants it, and does not think farther than that particular impulse or inclination.

A great example of id is to think about babies. Babies know nothing else outside of satisfying their urges, and will cry when they donít get what they want or need. When they are denied a pleasure or do not get what they want, their immediate impulse is to cry at the top of their lungs, until their faces turn red. To that baby, the pain is devastating, even if the urge that is satisfied is something small, such as being picked up by an adult, or getting the attention that someone else is getting. Because there is no filter or mechanism that they can use for context to let them know that every urge isnít important, and the denial of every urge is not the end of the world, a newborn baby is the best example of the id in action.

3. The Super Ego

The super ego is a state of mind that is also known as the above I. This is a state of mind that puts aside the impulses of self for the greater good of protecting oneís self, and making the most out of oneís time in society. A person studying psychology would consider this portion of thought as the center that controls a personís values and the morals that they use to navigate the earth. This is also the section of thought the keeps the id in check, in order to prevent people from making costly mistakes in life.

It is important to realize that the super ego is part nature and part nurture. While it naturally controls a sense of what is right and what is wrong, this is also a portion of thought that is influenced by a number of socializing factors. These socializing factors start with parents and how a person is raised within a household. This also extends to religious beliefs and matters that society deems right or wrong. It is important that people understand that the super ego keeps regular narcissistic impulses in check, because the average person would hear the phrase super ego and would think the exact opposite of what it actually means.

When people think of the word ego, they are thinking of a personís sense of self as being wildly out of control. So naturally, they would assume that the word super ego would mean that a person has an ego on steroids. Quite the contrary, the super ego is where the conscience is stored. It gives people a sense of self that takes place within the scope of the world, so that they understand a code of morality and doing what is right, rather than just doing what feels good.

The difference between the super ego and other forms of thought is that the super ego strives to reach a state of perfection, rather than ever just doing what feels right. So aside from a moral compass, the super ego is the part that allows people to set goals and keep themselves on track in order to achieve those goals. For instance, while studying and being a good student is not a moral decision, the super ego is the portion of thought that would prompt a student to set a goal to get straight Aís. It would also influence the student to decline going to a party on the weekend, so that he or she is able to study hard to make that goal a reality.

This is also the section of thought that creates guilt, which takes place when a person does not live up to the ideals that they have set forth for themselves. That set of ideals, known as the ideal self, is the landscape of a personís dreams, goals, aspirations and the desire to do things the right way at all times. This is also where people feel a sense of failure, when they are not able to live up to those sets of standards and ideals.

The name of the game with all of these sections of thought is to recognize them and to keep them in check. For instance, if a person is all id, they will simply do things that make sense for them, with no regard to the health and safety of others, or even how such an impulse decision will affect themself. Conversely, if a person only operates with the sense of looking out for others and trying not to make mistakes, they might miss opportunities to satisfy those natural urges outlined by the id. For instance, a teenager at a dance might be operating in id by having the urge to ask a pretty girl to dance. But if his fight or flight response kicks in and overrides that urge, he could miss the opportunity at romance.

The ego is incredibly important, because it is the side of rational thought that allows people to come up with realistic ways to get their goals. For instance, rather than allowing a supposed moral code to override asking the pretty girl to dance, the ego would come up with a charming way to approach the girl, rather than to just spill out the first thought and come off as desperate, which would be a turn-off.

However, if a person only operates in ego, they would not be operating in a moral compass. They would just be taking pragmatic approaches to protect one from danger or harm, but not necessarily for the right reasons. The super ego is the portion that contains those right reasons, and might prevent a person from doing something due to a moral reason, rather than just looking out for oneself. By that token, it is also the side of thought that delves into aspiration, so it would be the thought process that would make the teenager take things a step further and ask the pretty girl for her phone number, in order to continue a relationship, rather than just letting the night end there.

By taking these three portions of thought into consideration, human beings are able to realize that their thoughts are a lot more complex that they would probably normally give them credit for. Sigmund Freud pioneered this level of deep thought and self-reflection, allowing psychologists everywhere to borrow his theories and expand upon them in ways that make the most sense.

This is one of his most important contributions to science, and the work that he did into this subject matter remains today. People use these phrases of id, ego and super ego and have an understanding of what each means because Sigmund Freud did the legwork and the research to expound upon them, in ways that no one had ever done before. This allows people to realize that there is no one right or wrong way to think, and that the different processes that they have all are very important, for different reasons, occasions and situations.


Though Freud was born to a Jewish family, he was largely known as an atheist. He wrote much about religion throughout the course of his research and experimentation, and talked about ideas of God and organized religion from a psychological standpoint. For instance, he basically thought of God as a man-created being that humans turned to because they had the need for an authority figure. According to Freud, people intrinsically need to make sense of the condition of life that they are born into, and in order to do so, they need to discuss a creator from a standpoint that they are able to understand.

As a human being, it is easy to see God as a human being like a form in the sky that watches over them, protects them and criticizes them when they are wrong. While he did not believe in God in the traditional sense, he did give merit and credit to many parts of religion, from a psychological aspect. For instance, he talked about the need for faith, and how the very act of faith exhibits a higher level of thinking and cognition. He also talked about how a person who operates in faith and develops their mind through it can receive more benefits in life, than a person who simply views the world in black and white, and does not allow their mind to expand beyond what they already see and are able to readily prove. He suggested that people would greatly benefit from taking some of these aspects of religion, but hoped that a day would come when society did not need religion to operate.

From the beginning of his life, Freud asserted that his religious studies had a profound impact on his decision to take the course of life that he did. It drastically set the course of his interests, allowing him to study the mind and the human condition as a whole. He maintained that the tendency to practice religion to a compulsive point is an act of neuroses, since religion focuses primarily on different sets of rituals and behaviors. When discussing the human mind and the creation of different religions, Freud notes that the development of different social taboos most likely stem from religion also. Rather than having a direct reason why something might be taboo, it is easier to write it off as something that is religiously driven and thus, forbidden.

Even though Freud himself was not religious once he entered his adult years, he largely regarded himself as a Jew from a cultural standpoint, and did not wish to disassociate from this part of his life. He recognized the merit and the need for a person to attach themselves to certain beliefs, in order to make themselves feel comfortable enough to take on the challenges in life. The need to question and dissect religion played a large role in how he operated, and in how he came up with the variety of thought processes and theories that he delved into.

Freudís theories on religion are still important today, because many people argue over the merits of religion and seek its truths to make sense of the world. Since the beginning of time, people have been looking for ways to make the most out of the human condition. In most cases, this comes in the form of studying or adhering to particular religious practices. People, who follow these religions, typically do so due to a psychological yearning to make sense of life, in addition to practicing their faith to make sense of death and the purpose of life. Everyone wants to learn why human beings were put on this planet and what they should be doing with their time on it.

The fact that so many people adhere to religious thought is proof that humans possess a higher level of intellect and thought, than simply tending to their animalistic urges. While these urges have a place, it is important to recognize a balance that must be stricken, as it separates humans from other species. Freud was critical of religion, but understood why people chose to follow it or believe in certain aspects of it.

Because of this, it is important to recognize the backdrop of Freudís work and that it has always been about making sense of life, development and the thought processes that human beings go through on a regular basis. By looking into these thought process, Freud was able to help patients make sense of their lives, and scholars understand what makes human beings tick and why they have the many thoughts that they do. By looking at it all from a top down approach, he was able to help people make sense of their lives from a lot of different standpoints.

Since he was Jewish in his personal life, without necessarily following the doctrine outlined in the Torah, Freud still held onto his identity and history in a way that respected it, even if he took issue with some of the rules and regulations outlined within it. He was able to look outside of his own potential biases and prejudices to look at life on a grander scale, and figure out why people follow religion or hold onto certain aspects of it, even in an advanced society.

When looking at these aspects of Freudís work, it is important to examine them holistically and in the big picture. What this means is that Freud came to all of his theories and stances from an organic point of view, with countless hours of experimentation, data collection and research. His work should not be looked at as the Ďbe all and end allí of psychology. But rather it is an important framework that has allowed others to use it as a springboard into understanding humanity and psychological thought, in a much clearer manner. He is the godfather of psychology for a reason, so anyone looking to understand his work should pay close attention to these major subsets of research that he participated in.


Sigmund Freudís contributions to the field of psychology and beyond are still felt to this day. Although he attended the University of Venice in order to obtain a degree in medical studies, he expounded upon the matter of psychological studies once he graduated. From there, he was able to develop a series of theories and lines of thought that are still widely used today. The contributions that Sigmund Freud made are incredibly impactful, in that it set a course of study that people are still following and building upon in the field.

His most important contributions include stages of development, which have allowed people to understand how human beings develop throughout a series of sexual stages. These sexual stages account for the many different urges that people receive, and explain the reasoning and the rationale behind them. By understanding this, people are better able to make sense of the human condition and why they do the things that they do. He has carried out a great deal of studies that account for these series of developments, and carried out a series of experiments that backed up these claims. This research is incredibly important, because it set the tone for the studies and active theories that psychologists and other professionals use, in order to make the most out of everything that they do in the field, and in order to help the patients that they see on a regular basis.

His studies have reached mainstream consciousness, due to the fact that the average person is aware of things such as the Oedipus complex, in which a child has an emotional and supposed sexual attraction to their mother. During this stage, children also have a sense of animosity or jealousy toward their father, due to the fact that he has attracted the attention and the affection of the mother.

It is important that people recognize these sorts of stages and theories, in order to understand what comes with the territory, and in order to truly put into context why children and people as a whole act in the manner that they do. For instance, a parent will be able to understand why a child may have certain fixations during the anal stage, while they are being potty trained and learning more about their bodies.

If people had no idea about these stages of development, it is very likely that people would parent in an entirely different manner. Freud set the tone for these conversations and fields of research, which is why people have a greater understanding of thought processes than in previous times. He set the tone that a number of different psychology experts followed, and due to the steps that he took, the field was expanded rapidly. Today, people are able to make sure that they can take the necessary steps to understand mental health and human development.

Aside from the stages of sexual development, Sigmund Freud also made important steps in researching things such as dreams. Before Freud, people didnít have the information that they did when it comes to making the most out of their unconscious thoughts and understanding them. But because Sigmund Freud took the time to analyze his own dreams, he was able to assess his thoughts from an honest point of view, which allowed him to carry this thought over into his work and into the way that he formed theories and conducted experiments.

Aside from these areas of thought, Freud also set the tone for understanding peopleís regular, every day thoughts, by outlining the ego, id and super ego. These portions of thought account for every urge, impulse and rationalization that people make in their lives. It accounts for those animal urges that people make for survival, along with the mechanisms that keep them in check. Further, his research and study accounted for the thoughts that allow people to develop a system of morals and beliefs, due to the discovery of the super ego. His contributions in the field have not been rivaled, since a lot of people who made important contributions to the field, such as Carl Jung, used Freud as a template and piggybacked on his research.

Without Sigmund Freud, it is possible that human beings would not have the depth of understanding that they currently have, when it comes to the human mind. Because of the expansive research that he carried out, scientists and scholars have been able to take that foundation and create an entire field around it. His research and work still stand up today to even the most expansive research, because a lot of merit was found within it.

He paid great attention to detail when it came to developing these theories, which is why even those who do not agree with those theories revere him as the father of psychology. A person who wants to study Sigmund Freud should make sure that they study the theories and research outlined in this guide, in order to have a basic understanding of what the man did with his life, and why he is so important to science and research.

After a person does this, they will come away with a much greater understanding into the life of this important person, and perhaps into their own mind. Freud did not cut corners when it came to these discoveries. He should be applauded for the serious amount of work and detail that went into each and every facet for it. Anyone who wants to understand him better and read up on the work that he did has at their fingertips, a wealth of information and study. Anyone who has taken a psychology class has most likely come in contact with much of the theory and thought that Freud laid out, which has set the foundation that has been followed by many.

Use this guide as research and take the time to embrace the life of such a brilliant scientist, in order to understand more about life as a whole.